SAPPHIRES

 

zaffiro grezzoSapphires are named all gemstones as varieties of the same mineral: corundum.Sapphires are named all gemstones as varieties of the same mineral: corundum.It is commonly known as blue, but natural "fancy" sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors. 

The only color which sapphire cannot be is red – as red colored corundum is called Ruby, another corundum variety. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires – 9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, after diamond at 10 and moissanite at 9.5) – sapphires are also used in many industrial applications.
Together with Ruby, Blue Sapphire is one of the two gem-varieties of corundum.Although blue is the best-known sapphire color, they occur in other colors, including gray and black, and they can be colorless. A pinkish orange variety of sapphire is called padparadscha.


Sapphire and rubies are often found in the same geological setting.[5]Even if for blue sapphire, Kashmir receives the highest premium although Burma, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar also produce large quantities of fine quality gems. Kashmir blue sapphires have a superior cornflower blue hue to them with a mysterious and almost sleepy quality, traditionally described as ‘blue velvet”. Kashmir-origin contributes meaningfully to the value of a sapphire, and most corundum of Kashmir origin can be readily identified by its characteristic silky appearance and exceptional hue. 27561
Blue sapphire exists in various mixtures of its primary (blue) and secondary hues, various tonal levels (shades) and at various levels of saturation (vividness).Blue sapphires are evaluated based upon the purity of their primary hue. Purple, violet, and green are the most common secondary hues found in blue sapphires.
Sapphires can be treated by several methods to enhance and improve their clarity and color.[4]:169 It is common practice to heat natural sapphires to improve or enhance color. When high temperatures are used, the stone loses all silk (inclusions) and it becomes clear under magnification and it means that the stone has been treated. 
Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary. A sapphire jubilee occurs after 65 years.

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