EMERALDS

 

Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl. It is colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
The word "emerald" is derived from Ancient Greek: σμάραγδος (smaragdos) "green gem".rough emeraldEmeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green, with the primary hue necessarily being green. Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds. Only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emeralds; light-toned gems are known instead by the species name green beryl. 
Emerald tend to have numerous inclusions and surface breaking fissures. It has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Unlike diamonds, where the loupe standard, i.e. 10× magnification, is used to grade clarity, emeralds are graded by eye. Thus, if an emerald has no visible inclusions to the eye it is considered flawless. Stones that lack surface breaking fissures are extremely rare and therefore almost all emeralds are treated to enhance the apparent clarity. 
The inclusions and fissures within an emerald are sometime described as jardin (garden), because of their mossy appearance. Imperfections are unique for each emerald and can be used to identify a genuine natural stone vs synthetic. 
Emeralds in antiquity were mined in Egypt at locations on Mount Smaragdus since 1500 BCE, India, and Austria since at least the 14th century CE. The Egyptian mines were exploited on an industrial scale by the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and later by Islamic conquerors. 4 25 Ratti Barishh Gems SDL565292368 1 44bc3
Mining ceased with the discovery of the Columbian deposits, only ruins remain. Colombia is by far the world's largest producer of emeralds. emeraldSome gemologists have extensively examined the chemical signatures of emeralds and their research demonstrated the chemical homogeneity of emeralds from the same mining location and the statistical differences that exist between emeralds from different mining locations, including those between the three locations: Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor.
Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May as well as the traditional gemstone for the astrological signs of Cancer.

gruppo SMERALDO

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